Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Bill Cosby :: essays research papers

Bill Cosby was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 12, 1937. He was the oldest of four boys. He had three brothers, and their names were: James, Russell, and Robert. His father ran away near Christmas time when he was very young and he had to get a job to help support the family. In school he was the class clown and was sent to a special school for rowdy boys. In his new school his teacher was Mary Forchic. She saw that he was a great comedian and she put that into her lessons to make them more understandable for Bill. She made the lessons fun for him and made it easier to learn. He said that she made him what he is today. After a couple years he went back to his old school and even though his grades were dropping he still kept it together. Bill was starting to look up to comedians on the radio and the TV. They were comedians like Sam Levenson, Sid Caesar, and Carl Reiner. Even though his grades were poor in junior high, when he took the standardized tests he was accepted to Central High School, which was a school for all the gifted children in Pennsylvania. Now being six feet, he was on the high school football team. But in the first week of football he broke his arm. Since there were few blacks in the school and he was slightly a target of biggotous remarks he went back to getting attention by clowning around in class again. He was later sent to Germantown Highschool where all his neighborhood friends went. He was back with his friends but his grades started to drop. He was left back twice. He was also too old to participate in the city track meets (which he could easily win). Bill dropped out of high school. He went to be a shoemaker=s helper, but the shoemaker didn=t like it when he nailed the ladies heels onto the mens shoes!Then Bill decided to join the Navy. There he found discipline and no room to joke around. He spent four long years in the Navy but he says that it made him more mature and able to control himself better. He was trained as a physical therapist. Helping men who lost their legs and arms, he finally realized how lucky he was. While in the Navy

Opportunities and Threats facing the U.S Airline Industry Essay

Opportunities and Threats facing the U.S Airline Industry The health of the overall U.S airline industry is still tenuous in-spite of the passenger traffic volumes returning to pre-9/11 levels. A survey estimated that from 2001 through 2003, the US airline industry reported to have lost $23.2 billion dollars, compounded by an additional $1.6 billion in the first quarter of 2004. This $24.8 billion shortfall exceeds the total profits earned over the entire six-year period 1995-2000 Drastic changes in the Economic, Political/legal and technological segment of airline’s external environment contributed to some of the major looses seen by the industry. The key factors that heavily contributed to the loses include †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Economic slow down in the country †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Massive decline in business travel †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  SARS epidemic †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Increase in competition †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Availability of substitutes for air travel †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  soaring fuel prices †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Weak dollar In response to the industry’s financial crisis, Congress made available several forms of relief that amounted to over $20billion. This relief includes the payment of upto $5billion in pretax cash assistance to reimburse air careers for losses incurred as a direct result of the 4-day government shut-down of air traffic after 9/11. However, relief measures were not enough to bring the airline industry out of hot water. Most of the airlines have accumulated vast amounts of debt which brought them on the verge of bankruptcy. The list includes Atlas/Polar Cargo, Midway, National, Sun Country, TWA, United and US Airways. American and Delta airlines narrowly avoided bankruptcy but have warned about such possibility. †An average carrier is now well over 90% leveraged (net debt to equity ratio) compared to 60-70 percent historically. This means most airlines are now completely leveraged and unable to obtain capital. This has added to significant debt service costs and will make the industry even more vulnerable to any future economic downturns. With industry debt well over $100 billion, much of it due in the next 24 month. 11 of 12 airlines are rated â€Å"junk bonds† by S&P. Only Southwest remains at an â€Å"investment grade. Almost all airlines are faced with the same challenges and threats in the external environment like rising fuel cost, weak travel demand etc. Some airlines like Southwest, JetBlue and AirTran whi... ...work and take necessary action to adapt and sustain its competitive posture. Southwest employs integrated low-cost and differentiated strategy which enables the firm to †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Adapt quickly to environment changes †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Learns and implement new skills and technology quickly †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Effectively utilize its core competency while competing against rivals. To sustain a competitive advantage and to seek above average returns, Southwest implements this strategy to produce relatively differentiated service at lower cost compared to its rivals. Yes this strategy is appropriate to offset the forces in the industry. Southwest should grow internationally as the demand for air-line travel has substantially declined domestically in the last couple of years and will continue to decline further in some segments like business or corporate travel. The major reason I feel is the growth in communication technology enabling people to work remotely without the need to be present in the office. Voice and data over IP, Live meeting and communication services have substantially reduced the need for corporate executive and divisional managers to travel thus lowering the demand further.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Econmet Paper

Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN A Study on the Effect of Inflation, Net Income, and Energy Use to the Fossil Fuel Consumption in the Philippines An Empirical Paper Presented to The Faculty of the School of Economics De La Salle University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in ECONMET Submitted by: Christian Benedict B. Arga 11027614 Submitted to: Dr. Cesar Rufino December 14, 2012 1 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN Table of Contents Introduction I. II. III. IV. Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Objectives of the Study Scope and LimitationsReview of Related Literature I. II. III. Inflation Net Income Energy Use Operational Framework I. II. Variable Descriptions A-Priori Expectations Methodology I. II. Data Gathered Model Specifications Empirical Results and Interpretation I. II. Variable Analysis Critical Assumptions 2 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN 1. Multicollinearity 2. Homoscedasticity 3. Non-autocorrelation Remedial Measures and Adjusted Estimated Econometric Model I. II. Remedial Measures Adjusted Econometric Model Conclusions and Recommendations Bibliography Data Presentation 3 Christian Benedict B.ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN Introduction I. Background of the Study In this empirical paper, the researcher aims to know the effects of net income, inflation and energy use on the consumption of fossil fuels in the country. This project will allow the student to use various econometric concepts and a variety of tests to determine the factors that will allow him a practical approach on the subject. Fossil fuel as defined by Encyclopedia Britannica is â€Å"any of a class of materials of biological origin occurring within the Earth’s crust that can be used as a source of energy. It is a hydrocarbon containing natural resource that is not acquired from plants or animals. Fossil fuel is a general term for buried combustible geologic deposits of organic materials, formed from decayed plants and animals that ha ve been converted to crude oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils by exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years. The depletion of fossil fuel has been an underlying problem in our economy. Unlike energy coming from hydroelectric power plants or windmills, the energy acquired from fossil fuel cannot be renewed and is gone forever. Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN II. Statement of the Problem As said earlier, fossil fuel is a non-renewable energy source. All countries in the world are trying their best to conserve their respective resources. The problem in this empirical project is that whether various factors such as inflation, net income, and energy use of the country has an effect on its consumption of fossil fuels. III. Objectives of the Study There are various objectives to this study. First is to find out whether inflation, net income, and energy use has an effect on a country’s consumption on fossil fuels.Second, is to educate the readers of this paper which of the independent variables affects the consumption of fossil fuel the most. And lastly, this paper aims to apply the various lessons learned in class to show the effects of the chosen variables on the fossil fuel consumption. 5 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN IV. Scope and Limitations The data gathered that was used in this project was limited and only allowed the researcher to gather up to 35 observations because some variables lack values for previous years. Because of this reason, the sample size is relatively small and cannot be compared to other countries for reference.Review of Related Literature I. Inflation Inflation is defined by Investopedia, as the rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising, and, subsequently, purchasing power is falling. Central banks attempt to stop severe inflation, along with severe deflation, in an attempt to keep the excessive growth of prices to a minimum. Inflatio n has affected the rate of many products at which they are consumed. For this project, we will find out if inflation has an effect on the consumption of fossil fuels. We want to find out if people would 6Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN consume more or less if the prices of fossil fuel has been affected by inflation. II. Net Income Net income, as learned in the student’s business subjects, is the money left after subtracting expenses and other deductibles like taxes and interest to the total revenue. We will observe if net income has an effect on fossil fuel consumption. Maybe, a higher net income may lead the consumer to consume more or perhaps, a lower net income may get the consumer to find other sources of energy which may be cheaper than fossil fuel. III. Energy UseFossil fuel burning powers our vehicles and industries, heats and cools our buildings, and runs appliances. It also produces electricity that we use for all sorts of purposes, such as lights and comp uters. This is quite obvious because as we consume more energy, the more fossil fuel we burn and vice versa. 7 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN Operational Framework I. Variable Description The model will contain the following components, the dependent variable and the independent variables. The independent variables are those that are exogenous in nature. It is not affected by any variable contained within the model.The dependent variable, on the other hand, is endogenous in nature. It is affected by all the independent variables in the model. For this project, there will be three independent variables namely; inflation, netincome, and energy while the dependent variable will be fossil. Table 1 : Variable Description This is the independent variable. This is the fossil fossil fuel consumption of the Philippines from the years 1977 until 2011. It is expressed in percentage. 8 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN This is a dependent This is GDP variable. measured infl ation by the deflator from 1977 up to 2011.This variable is expressed in the annual percentage. This is a dependent is the variable. This yearly total income of our country from 1977 until netincome 2011. We can see that the data has negative values. This is due to the data being in BoP expressed in US$. This is a dependent is the variable. energy yearly This energy of from the 1977 consumption Philippines until 2011. This variable 9 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN is expressed in kilotonnes. II. A-Priori Expectations The A-Priori is a smart justification before actual testing and analysis is done with the data. Given that the fossil fuel onsumption is the dependent/endogenous variable, we will take a look at the relationship of this with the independent/exogenous variables. This will be presented in the table below: Table 2: A-Priori Expectations Endogenous Variable: fossil Exogenous Variable Relationship Reason As inflation goes up, the prices of fossil fuel goes up too therefore, the consumption of fossil fuel will be reduced. People will try to find cheaper sources of energy and maybe renewable ones are a good try. inflation negative 10 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN netincome positive energy positiveAs netincome increases, there will be more money to spend therefore it may affect the consumption of fossil fuel positively. People will tend to buy more goods like food which requires electricity to cook. As energy consumption goes up, there will be more and more fossil fuel that will be consumed. Most of the world's energy source comes from fossil fuels. Therefore, as people tend to consume more energy, more fossil fuel is going to be burned up. Methodology I. Data Gathered The data gathered has been acquired from the databank of the World Bank’s website. The data is from the Philippines dating back from 1977 until 2011.There are a total of 35 observations. This is due to the reason that some of the variables lack data from 1976 and further back. So to keep the consistency of this project, only 35 observations per variable has been used. This is to ensure that the 11 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN data is unbiased and comparable to each other. Presented in the table below is the data summary from Stata12: II. Model Specifications The regression model to be formed will be based on intuition, economic theories, conducted studies and research materials related to the objectives of this paper.The independent variables chosen will all be affecting the dependent variable, profits, proportionately; therefore, it is appropriate to use the lin-lin model or the linear-linear model. The estimated econometric model based on the A-priori expectations would look like this: fossil=? 1 +? 2 inflation+? 3 netincome+? 4 energy+U i 12 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN Empirical Results and Interpretation I. Estimated Econometric Model The summarization table earlier confirms that there are truly a total of thirty-five observations for each variable.The data can therefore be regressed and is comparable for there are equal numbers of observations per variable included in the estimated model. However, in order to determine the individual contribution of each variable, the values should be in terms of the same unit of measurement. The model has been transformed into the Log-Log model so that the data is comparable to each other. Stata12 generated the missing values. Using the Ordinary Least Squares regression functionality of Stata12, the following table has been generated which will lead us to acquire our estimated econometric model: 13 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614AE-FIN The estimated model is now: fossil=-2. 324895. 0168192inflation+. 0182493netincome+. 5711335energy+U i From doing the Ordinary Least Squares regression, we are actually looking at the p-values and the r-squared values. The pvalue will tell us the significance of the variable while the r-squared will tell us the explanatory ability. The significant parameters in the data are the netincome, energy, and the constant. We could say that these parameters are significant because when the p-value generated by Stata12 is generated by two, the p value falls below the required value of 0. 05. The r-squared of the data is at 0. 349 or 93. 49%. This tells us that this data explains that the data is a good fit for the real world because it explains 93. 49% of the real world model. II. Variable Analysis Given the independent variable, fossil, and the independent variables, it is given that for every 1 unit increase in inflation, fossil fuel consumption would go down by 0. 0168912%. This gives inflation a negative relationship with fossil fuel consumption and 14 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN thus matches with our A-priori expectation. Next, for every 1 unit increase in net income, fossil fuel consumption will go up by 0. 182493%. This satisfies our A-priori expectation that net income has a positive relationship with fossil fuel consumption. Energy is also proven to give a positive relationship with fossil fuel consumption. This is given by its coefficient of 0. 5711335. So this means that for every 1 unit increase in energy use, fossil fuel consumption goes up by 0. 5711335% which also satisfies our Apriori expectation. Now for the constant, which has a coefficient of 2. 324895, tells us that if nothing happens with inflation, net income, and energy use, fossil fuel consumption still goes down by 2. 324895%.Although it is a fantasy that there will nothing happen with inflation, net income, and energy, there may be missing factors which were not included in this project. III. Critical Assumptions Classical linear regression models (CLRM) have three critical assumptions ? non-multicollinearity, homoscedasticity and nonautocorrelation. Violations of these will each give up an unfavorable, unreliable and inaccurate outcome for the estimated model. It is for these reasons that the above interpretation of the 15 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN model could not be used yet to conclude anything regarding the consumption of fossil fuel. . Multicollinearity, as defined by Penn State University, is an event whenever two or more of the predictors in a regression model are moderately or highly correlated. To test for multicollinearity, the Variable-Inflating Factor will be used. Shown below is the result generated by Stata12: There is multicollinearity within the model if the Mean Variance-Inflating Factor is greater than 10. From the result generated by Stata12, the Mean VIF is 1. 08. This value is very far from 10 therefore, the model does not possess the problem for multicollinearity. 2.Homoscedasticity Homoscedasticity means that the variance around the regression line is constant for all X values. Heteroscedasticity are most commonly present in cross-section data. When 16 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN heteroscedasticity is present , OLS is no longer the best linear unbiased estimate; therefore, violation of this assumption is a far graver problem than the violation of non-multicollinearity. The researcher used Stata12 to test for homoscedasticity. Using the variables above for the test, Stata12 gave the result as follows: Given that our H o : P-Value (one-tailed) > 0. 5: constant variance and H A : P-Value (one-tailed) < 0. 05: non-constant variance, Stata12 yielded a p-value of 0. 3693. Because the pvalue that was acquired is greater than 0. 05, we accept the null hypothesis which states that our OLS has a constant variance and thus, is not suffering from heteroscedasticity. 3. Non-autocorrelation Another critical assumption of the CLRM is non- autocorrelation. Autocorrelation is the correlation between the past and present value of the data. This violation is commonly 17 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN present in time series data because of the sluggishness of economic variables.The presence of a utocorrelation will result to OLS not being the best linear unbiased estimate, although it is still unbiased, constant, asymptotically normal and sufficient. R–squared are overestimated, t-values F-values and x 2 are all wrong, all leading to counter-intuitive signs. The root cause of all these errors will be coming from the standard errors being underestimated. This will result to wrong policy implementation and misleading inferences. For this, the researcher used the Breusch-Godfrey LM test for autocorrelation. The result can be seen below: Given that our H o : P-Value (one-tailed) > 0. 5: no serial correlation and H A : P-Value (one-tailed) < 0. 05: with serial correlation, Stata12 yielded a p-value of 0. 1119 which is greater than 0. 05 thus, we accept the null hypothesis that there is no serial correlation in the model. Although the data has been tested through the BreuschGodfrey LM test for autocorrelation, we still need to test it 18 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN furthermore but now through the Durbin-Watson d statistic test. The Breusch-Godfrey test has been done first because it is preferred by statisticians for auto correlation testing.Now for the results of the Durbin-Watson: The result for the Durbin-Watson yielded a value of 0. 6512995. As learned through the course, autocorrelation exists if the result is close to 0 or 4. The model possesses positive autocorrelation if the yielded d is close to 0. On the other hand, if d is closer to 4, the model experiences a negative autocorrelation. For the model to be autocorrelation free, the yielded d must be closer to 2 than 0 or 4. In this case, Stata12 returned a result which is closer to 0 which tells us that autocorrelation exists in the model.Because the assumption of no autocorrelation was violated, we must correct this by implementing remedial measures. 19 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN Remedial Measures and Adjusted Estimated Econometric Model I. Remedial Measure Bec ause the model was tested with positive autocorrelation above, a remedial measure is needed to be implemented to correct this. For this problem, it will be corrected through the use of the Prais-Winsten estimation. It is a procedure meant to take care of the serial correlation of type AR(1) in a linear model.It is a modification of Cochrane–Orcutt estimation in the sense that it does not lose the first observation and leads to more efficiency as a result. Stata12 could also apply this method whenever autocorrelation is detected through the Durbin-Watson testing. The results are as follows: 20 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN After the application of the Prais-Winsten estimation, we acquired a transformed Durbin-Watson statistic of 1. 206692. This value is closer to 2 compared to the original DW statistic of 0. 651299. Having this result, we can now safely say that the model now is autocorrelation free.II. Adjusted Econometric Model With the execution of the Prais-Wi nsten, the r-squared and the adjusted r-squared has changed together with the coefficients of the variables. With the transformed r-squared of 0. 9994, it has improved from the previous r-squared of 0. 9349. This means that the model now explains 99. 94% of the real world variance. Because of the Prais-Winsten transformation, we acquired new coefficients and thus we have our adjusted econometric model: fossil=-2. 956624. 0344159inflation+. 0145774netincome+. 6412211energy+U i The same concept still applies with our previous econometric model.The relationships between the dependent variable and the independent variables haven’t changed so that means that it still meets our A-priori expectation. 21 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN Conclusion and Recommendations Now that the model with fossil fuel consumption as its dependent variable; inflation, net income, and energy use as its independent variables, has now been empirically tested and that the concepts and skills th at have been learned in class have been applied, it is now time to supply in the conclusions and recommendations about the subject matter.Fossil fuel as said earlier is a non-renewable source of energy. Once that it has been burned up, it can never be acquired again. Unlike hydroelectric and wind energy sources, these are easily renewable through the resources provided by Mother Nature. Also, the burning of fossil fuel damages the ozone layer and increases the amount of greenhouse gases. It has been proven earlier that the A-priori expectations have been met. First I’d like to discuss the relationship of inflation and fossil fuel consumption. It is said above that fossil fuel consumption and inflation have a negative relationship.This means that whenever inflation goes up, the consumption of fossil fuel goes down. If the global economy wants to reduce the consumption of this non-renewable energy source and encourage people to turn to other sources of energy other than this, t aking advantage of the inflation may be a good idea. If fossil fuels’ prices like oil and coal have gone up due to the inflation, people may find it practical to switch to other sources of energy like solar, wind, or geothermal heat. 22 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN Fossil fuel consumption and net income has been proven to have a positive relationship.This is because whenever the net income of a household increases, they can afford more goods such as food and electric dependent devices which consumes more fossil fuel. If the net income on the other hand goes down, the consumption of fossil fuel also goes down. This is due to the fact that people tend to consume less when their income is lower. They buy less food and other goods which consume fossil fuel to be utilized. Energy use also has a positive relationship with the consumption of fossil fuel. Today, very few have switched to the use of renewable energy.There are very few houses that have solar panels to pow er up their household. Some industrial organizations have windmills and large solar panels that power up their buildings and machineries. But even though these alternative sources are more eco-friendly, it comes with a very large price tag. It is very expensive to switch to renewable energy sources than just plainly using fossil fuel for power. So this means that the more a household or organization use energy, more and more fossil fuel is burned and consumed. Fossil fuel is the most reliable source of energy today.If for example, a certain country would want to reduce its fossil fuel consumption, they can implement laws like to increase the taxes on fossil fuel so that people would be forced to switch to other energy resources. The use of fossil 23 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN fuel hasn’t really been a win for our planet. Burning fossil fuels release greenhouse gases which lead to the depletion of the ozone layer. Aside from this, fossil fuel may someday be bur nt out completely. Embracing other sources of energy which may be safe for the environment may be a good thing because fossil fuel will not last for a very, very long time. 4 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN Bibliography Gujarati, D. , &Porter, D. (2009). Basic econometrics. Singapore: McGrawHill/Irwin. Damassa, T. (n. d. ). Fossil Fuel Consumption and its Implications | World Resources Institute. World Resources Institute | Global Warming, Climate Change, Ecosystems, Sustainable Markets, Good 2, Governance 2012, & the from Environment. Retrieved December http://www. wri. org/stories/2006/11/fossil-fuel-consumption-and-itsimplications Data | The World Bank. (n. d. ). Data | The World Bank. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://data. worldbank. rg/ Fossil Fuels and Energy Use. (n. d. ). B. C. Air Quality – Home. Retrieved December 9, 2012, from http://www. bcairquality. ca/101/fossil-fuels. html Fossil | Department of Energy. (n. d. ). Energy. gov | Department of Energy. Retrieved December 5, 2012, from http://energy. gov/science- innovation/energy-sources/fossil 25 Christian Benedict B. ARGA 11027614 AE-FIN Data Presentation Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Fossil fuel energy consumption (% of total) 55. 31347732 54. 8931033 53. 78592188 49. 29623659 45. 48943701 43. 37568802 44. 38229089 35. 31123038 35. 76117547 36. 35431158 40. 26445038 41. 63311248 42. 63808088 43. 43920259 44. 68749999 48. 64714575 49. 75059198 52. 18039963 55. 84399353 56. 88793876 58. 26781808 56. 4225028 53. 69666356 53. 57196521 54. 87855853 56. 41898661 57. 72775356 56. 78790726 58. 16262043 56. 49811715 56. 71572428 57. 1050697 Inflation, GDP deflator (annual %) 8. 272875998 9. 331739787 14. 83954359 14. 24994909 11. 70313893 8. 701224356 14. 22188106 53. 3359576 17. 63285991 2. 952878059 7. 4981921 9. 647022877 9. 033063566 12. 9712 8127 16. 268799 7. 932658326 6. 832158129 9. 991314599 7. 550870238 7. 661037838 6. 224392022 22. 38172301 6. 585053049 5. 709799946 5. 54947782 4. 162229818 3. 201335984 5. 516871 5. 828020679 4. 949030524 3. 090323839 7. 549059634 Net income (BoP, current US$) -125000000 -118000000 -206000000 -420000000 -503000000 -1021000000 -836000000 -1449000000 -1300000000 -1301000000 -1190000000 -1185000000 -1349000000 -872000000 -500000000 445000000 924000000 1850000000 3662000000 3282000000 4681000000 3769000000 -1062000000 -30000000 -57000000 -430000000 -287000000 -74000000 -298000000 -1261000000 -899000000 105000000 26Energy use (kT) 20161. 985 20500. 008 21698. 546 22748. 27 22856. 792 23462. 731 25453. 089 22902. 456 24008. 288 24091. 214 25209. 039 26593. 306 27975. 579 28891. 831 28878. 767 30215. 561 30233. 992 32369. 158 33981. 925 35217. 379 37071. 776 38075. 904 39044. 627 40423. 602 38777. 981 39300. 931 39385. 191 39152. 811 39178. 35 38848. 861 38142. 364 39605. 368 Christian B enedict B. ARGA 2009 2010 2011 57. 04278229 57. 04278229 57. 04278229 2. 773246711 4. 222388865 4. 246089114 11027614 -193000000 505000000 1293000000 38842. 497 38842. 497 38842. 497 AE-FIN 27

Monday, January 13, 2020

Powerful Women and Submissive Women in Njal’s Saga and the Bible Essay

Ancient societies and their cultures traditionally provided women with no access to power. It was nearly universal for women to be treated as subservient to men while being expected to behave mildly and submissively. The New Testament makes no exception. The Apostle Paul explains that through Christ, women are absolved of constraints that the social hierarchy imposes on them, but he later goes on to explain that even in Christ a religious hierarchy still exists. By acknowledging that women are inferior to men in both the social and religious circles, Paul presents women as subordinates. This contrasts with Njal’s Saga. Through the saga’s characters Gunnhild, Hallgerd, and Bergthora, the unknown author presents the way Icelandic society treats women as property to men, and demonstrates women as powerful and influential characters who hold their individual desires to a higher degree to those of men; acting as catalysts of conflicts among men and the overall plot itself. In Njal’s Saga, the author introduces the Queen of Norway, Gunnhild, in the beginning of the story. Gunnhild’s position in society as a powerful character is demonstrated when she sends a servant for the traveling Icelanders, Hrut and Ozur, saying, â€Å"Tell them that I invite them both to spend the winter with me and that I want to be their friend. If Hrut listens to my advice I will look after his property claim†¦ I’ll also put in a good word for him with the king. † The two give their response when Ozur says, â€Å"It’s clear to me, kinsman, that we have already taken our decision, for I know Gunnhild: if we don’t go to her she will drive us from our land and grab all our possessions. But if we go to her she will show us the honour she has promised (Njal’s Saga, 7). â€Å" Rather than simply disregarding the woman and approaching the king, here the two Icelanders acknowledge a woman’s (Gunnhild’s) power to take away their possessions and act to avoid this from occurring. Additionally, Hrut and Ozur’s realization of the strategic benefit that follows when submitting to Gunnhild as well as the quoted promise suggests that they also acknowledge that Gunnhild may possess significant influence in decisions. This suggestion is eventually confirmed when she successfully convinces the King to accept Hrut as a bodyguard (Njal’s Saga, 8). Even though the King is the superior, Gunnhild still possesses the ability to influence him. Her influence demonstrates her ability to assume and exercise a degree of power. It is through her power that Gunnhild goes on to instigate a chain of events. After having Hrut as a lover for several seasons, Gunnhild reasserts her power when Hrut asks to return to Iceland. Though she lets him return, she sends a curse along with him. She says, â€Å"If I have as much power over you as I think I have, then I cast this spell: you will not have sexual pleasure with the woman you plan to marry in Iceland, though you’ll be able to have your will with other women. Neither of us comes out of this well, because you did not tell me the truth (Njal’s Saga, 13). † The curse she places on Hrut actually comes true (Njal’s Saga, 16). Hrut cannot please his wife and Gunnhild’s desire to hold a degree of dominance over Hrut is fulfilled. Because Hrut wants to please his wife but cannot, his desires are unfulfilled. This suggests that Gunnhild’s demands and desires are superior to those of men. It is the demands and desires of a woman that instigate events. The author immediately presents Gunnhild in the very first significant event of the Saga, as a woman with power. It is through this that it is ultimately suggested that the tone of behavior of women is established early in the saga. The behavioral tone set by Gunnhild is echoed through Hallgerd, Gunnar’s wife. Her desire to preserve her honor in the face of Bergthora, Njal’s wife, as well as her position of power allows her to trigger a series of conflicts. At a customary feast between the families of Njal and Gunnar, Hallgerd and Bergthora engage in an argument, attacking each other’s honor. Gunnar refuses to defend his wife, saying, â€Å"I’m going home, and it would be best for you to pick quarrels with your servants, and not in the dwellings of others. I’m in debt to Njal for many honours, and I’m not going to be a cat’s paw for you. When the time comes for the men to ride to the â€Å"Thing,† Gunnar tells Hallgerd, â€Å"Behave yourself while I’m away and don’t show your bad temper where my friends are concerned. † Hallgerd, thinking that Bergthora is plotting to steal excess wood from a forest shared between Gunnar and Njal, sends her servant, Kol, to kill Svart Bergthora’s servant who is innocently collect ing wood (he does so) (Njal’s Saga, 57-59). Here Gunnar clearly expresses his friendship with Njal and his disdain for his wife’s behavior. Even though Gunnar clearly commands his wife to not act against his friends, Hallgerd refuses to relinquish her anger and desire for honor and disregards Gunnar’s demands. Hallgerd’s desire to preserve her honor by causing the death of Svart demonstrates her ability to incorporate her desires into her decisions. Combined with her authority over her servants, she clearly possesses the ability to make crucial decisions. This particular decision results in the death of another’s family, which in turn instigates reoccurring conflict between Njal and Gunnar. It could be argued that women do not actually possess power because it is not exercised against the will of man when he is present, based on Gunnar’s absence during Hallgerd’s actions. This argument is rejected because the feud between Hallgerd and Bergthora still disregards their husbands’ demands to retain peace. Disregarding a man’s will, whether in his absence or not, indicates a lack of absolute authority over women. Because of this disregard, women appear to have authority over their own lives and decisions. Even Gunnar acknowledges this when he â€Å"said she would decide her own actions – ‘but I shall decide how the cases are settled (Njal’s Saga, 60). ’† This clearly demonstrates the husband’s inability to assert complete dominance over his wife, leaving only the decision of the consequences of the women’s actions to the men. Again, the desires of the women take precedence over the demands of the men. On the other hand, the Apostle Paul presents women as completely subordinate to men, expected to never act on their own desires and to submit to God and their husbands. Paul does this by establishing women’s inferiority in both the social and religious hierarchy. He first says, â€Å"For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus (Gal. 3:27-28). † Here Paul is acknowledging that in his society, like the Jews, Greeks, and slaves, women are repressed and that the following of Christ does not discriminate against these social restraints. Because there is no discrimination through Christ, it could be argued that Paul is preaching religious equality among women. However, he goes on to establish women’s inferiority even in religion. I want you to understand that Christ is the head of every man, and the husband is the head of his wife, and God is the head of Christ. Any man who prays or prophesies with something on his head disgraces his head, but any woman who prays or prophesies with her head unveiled disgraces her head†¦ For a man ought not to have his head veiled since he is the image and reflection of God; but woman is the reflection of man (Cor. 1:3-16). Here Paul clearly expresses that the religious hierarchy is as follows: God, then Christ, then man, and finally women. In that order Paul establishes a chain of command per se. Paul clearly places men above women in this hierarchy, which clearly indicates women’s inferiority to men in religion. His decree that women should wear a veil when prayin g or prophesizing is reflective of this hierarchy; the veil is a symbol of a woman’s subordination to man and therefore God. This means that equality in religion does not exist between men and women. Because Paul acknowledges that social restraints on women do in fact exist and because he establishes a religious hierarchy with men outranking women, it is assumed that Paul views women as generally inferior to men in both social and religious spheres. Although Paul’s letters to both the Galatians and the Corinthians do not refer to any specific women, they establish his expectations of women. Paul’s identification of women as both socially and religiously inferior creates a general air of inferiority for women, which contrasts with the women of Njal’s Saga who possess actual power over men, able to instigate events and conflicts between men. The women of Njal’s Saga are not totally confined to any kind of hierarchy , while those that Paul speaks of are. The role of women in varying societies has been a dilemma in today’s contemporary age. The increasing number of those who view women as independent and equal to men combats firm-standing traditions and cultures that expect women to behave as subordinates to men. Many religions to this day implement the same expectations (to be mild and submissive to men) of women that Paul shares in both their social and cultural, as well as their religious spheres. In other parts of the world women hold influential positions of power, from independent mothers to high-ranking political officers. The dilemma of the role of women in society is prominent in every society, forming a variety of societies due to their adherence to social and more often than not, religious customs.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Project Management Practices The Criteria For Success Or...

I located two articles that discussed the factors in a successful and failed project. The first article is â€Å"Project Management Practices: The Criteria for Success or Failure† by: Iman Attarzadeh and Siew Hock Ow. In this article the authors discuss the top ten factors for a successful and a failed project. The second article that I located was, â€Å"Top 10 Main Causes of Project Failure† by: Rosanne Lim. In this article, Lim discusses the ten factors that cause a project to fail. The top ten factors for a successful project are, user involvement, executive management support, clear statement of requirements, proper planning, realistic expectations, smaller project milestones, competent staff, ownership, communication, adequate support and resources.( Iman Attarzadeh and Siew Hock Ow)The ten factors that cause a project to fail are, poor planning and/or inadequate process, inefficient way to document and track progress, poor leadership at any level, failure to set expectations and manage them, inadequately-trained project managers, inaccurate cost estimation, lack of communication at any level, culture or ethical misalignment, competing priorities and disregard of project warning signs (Lim, 2012). Iman Attarzadeh and Siew Hock Ow, also have another list that identifies project challenge factors. These factors are identify as, lack of user input, incomplete requirements and specifications, changing requirements and specifications, lack of executive support, te chnologyShow MoreRelatedThe Role Of Different Projects Management Techniques1140 Words   |  5 PagesABSTRACT: The role of different project management techniques Is to implement projects successfully has been widely established in areas such as the planning and control of time, cost and quality. In spite of this the distinction between the project and project management is less than precise. This paper aims to identify the overlap between the definition of the project and project management and to discuss how the confusion between the two may affect their relationship. It identifies the differentRead MoreThe Importance and Implementation of Project Management1552 Words   |  6 Pagesprioritization helps one set their goals in order. This means that one does not become workaholic and is able to dedicate appropriate time to family and work. The same kind of order and organization is necessary for a firm to fulfill its main goals. Project Management dates back to the 1960s where it was first adopted by the US government when it divided its many functions into separate programs, like the space and military programs. This began because managers and organizations learned that division of workRead MoreResearch On It Project Management Assessment942 Words   |  4 Pageson IT Project Management Assessment Introduction: Project Management is a way to manage, maintain and to monitor the progress of a project. Project Manager is responsible for appropriate management; it is their duty to organize, plan, implement and deliver necessities with in time. Project Management deals with the rules, regulations, procedures and disciplines with respect to a particular project. In the world of today, several organizations are using the applications of project management becauseRead MorePlanning Of An Erp Implementation Conducted By The United States Army1367 Words   |  6 PagesStates Army. It addresses the goals and implementation considerations for the success of the project, as well as strategies that the US Army set out to overcome the challenges. The main goals of the project were to create and maximize the ability to manage, control and compete in the rapidly changing operational environment, both for the institutional and operational sides of the army. The army believed the keys to success were the abilities to effectively manage the transformation which happens beforeRead MoreWhat Determines Success Or Failure Of A Project? Essay1508 Words   |  7 PagesWhat determines success or failure of a project? Research by Roberts and Furlonger (2000) in a study of information systems projects show that using a reasonably detailed project management methodology, as compared to a loose methodology, improves productivity by 20 to 30 per cent. Moreover, the research indicates that 85 to 90 per cent projects fail to deliver on time, on budget and the quality of performance expected. It should be emphasized that the causes of failure to deliver on time, onRead MoreProject Risk Management Of Information Technology1492 Words   |  6 Pages PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY By POURUSPA ANKLESARIA 18154704 Executive Summary This report revolves around the risks in Information Systems Project and also gives a brief idea on Information technology project management. The project also shows and discusses the importance and the role of project manager in making the project a success. Risk and how to deal with it, risk management using Work Breakdown Structure Read MoreImproving The Strategic Goals Of An Organization1621 Words   |  7 PagesProjects are ultimately designed and implemented to make progress towards achieving the strategic goals of an organization. It is important to recognize the fact that many efforts are needed in planning a project, and putting the plan into action may require equal or even more efforts in order to achieve the desired goals. Even the best plans often need corrections and adjustments particularly in the implementation phase, therefore project leaders or managers need to anticipate possible challengesRead MoreProject Management Methodology For Reducing Organizational Change Implementation Costs And Save Resources Essay957 Words   |  4 Pagesuse project methodology to lower costs and save resources. Fully customizing a project, versus having no methodology at all, can make a firm’s project success rate soar from 66 percent to 82 percent. A project manager (PM) identifies what tasks will help a f irm meet its goals, and assigns responsibility for completing those tasks. It is important to choose a project management methodology (PMM) that fits needed criteria, but to also customize that methodology to specific company and project needsRead Moreproject success: success factor and success criteria Essay2754 Words   |  12 PagesON PROJECT SUCCESS DEFINED BY SUCCESS FACTORS AND SUCCESS CRITERIA by M. Shaw Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm       Winston Churchill INTRODUCTION 1. Since the 1960s there have been an increasing number of Project Management scholars that have expressed concerns regarding the ways to manage the success or failure of a project. Crawford (2000) theorised that there are two major avenues of thought in this area being: how success is judgedRead MoreCase on Corwin Corporation1695 Words   |  7 Pagesthey accepted a project from their client, Peters Company without making a deep research as they don’t want to lose their relationship. This project was more than what the company can chew. Corwin was not able to get the results as expected on this project. This was due to lack of time and expertise in personnel in making the â€Å"go or no go† decision for this project. Also there were no proper project management functions visible in the whole process right from selection of the project, which proves

Informative Speech- Womens Rights Essay - 1776 Words

How did Womens Rights Movement come about? Women were not allowed to vote. They usually could not get higher education. Often, they could not get jobs, and when they did, they get paid less than men for for the same work. They could not own property, in many countries, including England. In some places, if they had money and got married, the money became the property of their husbands. The Womens Rights Movement started because they were sick of the unfairness. Womens rights are the rights and elements and entitlement claimed for a woman and girls of many societies. Women(and some men) have asserted womens equality and the rights of women since ancient times, but without much success until the 19th and 20th century Womens Rights†¦show more content†¦The declaration was greeted with a storm of criticism in newspapers and from religious leaders. By 1850, however, activists had organized similar gatherings in Ohio and Massachusetts and established an annual Womans Rights Conven tion. The campaign for dress reform became closely associated with the womens rights movement, as advocates such as Amelia Bloomer argued that the tight clothing women wore was unhealthy and restrictive, such as Bloomers. Many early womens rights advocates also became involved in Spiritualism, a belief system based on direct communication with God and the dead, which offered women a greater voice in their religious life than did the male hierarchies of the Christian churches. In the 20th Century, The reemergence of the womens movement in the United States in the late 1960s is commonly referred to as the modern womens rights movement, the feminist movement, or the womens liberation movement. It is also known as second wave feminism, which serves to distinguish it from the period a century earlier when women in the United States first organized around demands for full citizenship. That earlier campaign, known as first wave, culminated with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, which legally (if not actually) barred discrimination in voting on the basis of sex. Feminists in the 1960s, like their predecessors, sought toShow MoreRelatedAnalyzing Clinton s Speech About Women s Rights986 Words   |  4 PagesAnalyzing Clinton’s speech about women’s rights. On September 5, 1995, many countries came together in Beijing China to hear Hillary Clinton s speech about women s rights. This speech was the United Nations Fourth World Conference of Women. Clinton addressed problems that needed to be corrected in many countries around the world, including the United States regarding the liberties of women, and why it was authoritative that they receive these freedoms. According to Clinton’s speech (1995), â€Å"The greatRead MoreWhat To The Slave Is The Fourth Of July, By Frederick Douglass821 Words   |  4 PagesInformative Essay #1 Many people struggle for change because they believe they aren’t being treated fairly, a certain group of people aren’t being treated equal, or they just want to see a certain change in something. â€Å"What to the Slave is the Fourth of July†, â€Å"Ain’t I a Woman†, and â€Å"Brown v. Board† are all examples that clearly show why people struggle for change. â€Å"What to the Slave† focusses on what the Fourth of July means to slaves. â€Å"Ain’t I a Woman† discusses the differences between how blackRead MoreInformative Speech981 Words   |  4 PagesINFORMATIVE SPEECH (David Hurt, COM 108) Low Pay for Women Compared to Men in America How much did you pay for your car? Did you know that the difference between an average man and women’s salary is enough to purchases a new automobile in America. Below I’m going to discuss the pay gaps, Educational aspects with men and women, and why this issue is world wide. In order to better understand this issue of pay between men and women look at your wife’s or husband’s pay and you’ll see theRead MoreWomen s Rights For Women1492 Words   |  6 PagesThe social justice that I have identified and decided to describe is the ‘Women’s rights’. Women’s rights cover a wide range of issues that protect women. They are the justifications and prerogatives that are universally granted to women and girls. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language describes these rights as â€Å"socioeconomic, political, and legal rights for women equal or equivalent to those of men†.1 This issue was brought to the world’s attention when some activists lookedRead MoreComparing and Contrasting Cartoons1710 Words   |  7 Pagesas well as certain formal and stylistic features. The first extract is a cartoon strip written in 1986 by Cathy Guisewite. The cartoon features four panels with three female characters with narrations and speech bubbles to emphasize dialogue and the message regarding women’s rights and sex stereotyping. The context of the cartoon is to show the inequalities between genders. This is evident, when the women begin to associate boys with certain stereotypes such as â€Å"strong† and â€Å"tough†. ThereforeRead MoreHumanities 112 Assignment1110 Words   |  5 Pagesfor the individual topic. For example, you may do an â€Å"interview,† a â€Å"proposal,† a â€Å"letter,† a â€Å"short story,† a â€Å"blog,† an â€Å"essay,† an â€Å"article,† or any other written genre for almost any of the topics. The project is intended to be fun as well as informative, so feel free to be creative with the delivery of your information. 3. Use at least two (2) sources besides the textbook, which counts as one (1) source. Topic choices (pick 1): †¢ Office Art Memo. Memorandum. Your boss, who knows you’ve beenRead MoreInformative Speech : Margaret Sanger1091 Words   |  5 PagesInformative Speech Topic: Margaret Sanger General Purpose: To inform of one of Times 100 people who changed the world Specific Purpose: To inform of the impact of Margaret Sanger Thesis: Margaret Sanger changed the world by rallying for the availability and use of contraceptives for all women. I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: â€Å"No woman can call herself free who does not own and control her body. No woman can call herself free until she can choose consciously whether she will or will not beRead MoreInformative Speech on the Environmental Movement Essay684 Words   |  3 PagesInformative Speech Outline Introduction Attention Getter: Did you know in 1969 there was a giant oil spill in Santa Barbara? Topic Revelation: This oil spill caused the environmental movement that has lead to our current environmental movement. By environmental movement, I mean what the people’s interests are in our environment. Significance Statement: The environmental movement is just as important as today then it was in 1969. The environment is constantly threatened and plays a crucialRead MoreInvisible Gender Rules Essay1497 Words   |  6 PagesInvisible Gender Rules Changing oneself is very difficult to achieve, but a complete change of a group of people is next to impossible. For women, the past many years have changed lives, careers and family life. Yet the womens revolution did not remove discrimination from society, it only changed certain discriminatory actions into others. Fatima Mernissi wrote the short story The Harem Within about a young girl living in a Harem where her primary role is to become a slave to her husbandRead MoreCarolyn Tobin Director Of Food And Nutrition Environmental Services At Pennsylvania Hospital1174 Words   |  5 PagesCarolyn Tobin Director of Food and Nutrition Environmental Services at Pennsylvania Hospital has a wide variety of education. She has a degree in Food Service management, Speech Pathology and Audiology and Nutrition. And she doesn’t eat correct. She has been in hospital Nutrition for the past 20 years. Prior to that she worked in food service at universities like Lehigh University and Chestnut Hill collage. She has also spent some of her early career in hotels and casinos. Out of all her jobs working

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Of Mine and Men and Othello - 834 Words

A person is a person through other persons†¦Ã¢â‚¬  means that an individual is who they are thanks to the society that they are in. People change and differ because of where they live in and what the people around them do. The book Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck and Othello by William Shakespeare give perfect examples of this. In the book of Mice and Men, we know the tragic ending that occurs with Lennie. But what caused this? Was it random? I believe not. Lennie had an addiction to putting soft things with such force that he would kill them without know. When he killed his boss’s wife, he didn’t mean to and ran away. George ran after him and killed him. The question is†¦ what caused George to kill his fellow friend? Since it was clear†¦show more content†¦Othello really did act based upon the actions of others. Another example Othello would be Iago himself. One can argue that Iago would have never taken the actions he did if it was not for Othello being promoted. So really Othello unintentionally started all this. Then on top of that, Othello promoted Cassio as second in command and that killed Iago much more. Iago did not want to do this, but he had to somehow have his revenge on Othello. The best way was to slowly torture him with what he loves most; his wife. It was a reaction type revenge that happened. In the end, to some point, Iago was justified for what he did. The final example is going back to of Mice and Men. Lennie did not know right from wrong and he did not know what he was going to do. Lennie was a good person and was not causing any trouble. However, the woman provoked to touch her long soft hair. Lennie was influenced by Curley’s wife. If it wasn’t for this then Lennie could have become a good young man that perhaps would have gotten smarter. Unfortunately he could control himself and therefore killed someone. We can compare both books hand in hand. First, of Mice and Men we can see that George did what he had to do in order to survive because if he did not then he would of probably died him self. George had to act based upon what choices he had. If it wasn’t for the farmers, then he would have probably keptShow MoreRelated The Irony of William Shakespeares Othello Essay1428 Words   |  6 PagesIrony of William Shakespeares Othello Irony plays a great role in ?The Tragedy of Othello?. The villain, Iago, plans from the very beginning of the play to ruin Othello?s life. All the major characters in the play believe that Iago is an honest and trustworthy person. The tragic irony is that Iago fools them all. Throughout the whole play Iago manipulates the people around him and lies to them. Iago is very distressed, because Michael Cassio was promoted to Othello?s lieutenant instead of himselfRead MoreEssay on Pride in Oedipus and Othello1727 Words   |  7 PagesPride in Oedipus and Othello   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In literature, the tragic heroes Oedipus and Othello allow the pride they have to cause their own demise by putting too much emphasis on the lives they have created for themselves. Oedipus, who blinds himself after finding out he has killed his birth father and married his birth mother, refuses to believe he has truly fulfilled his fate because he is so proud of what he has accomplished since he left Corinth. Othello demonstrates his pride by believing thatRead MoreShakespeare s Othello - Act II1376 Words   |  6 PagesMarch 7, 2015 Othello Act II, Scene III Iago and Cassio are going to spend time together partying and drinking. The dramatic irony in the situation is that the audience knows Iago is not really Cassio’s friend in this situation but instead Iago is just going along with his plan. In Othello’s statement â€Å"Iago is most honest† (IIiii), it is a dramatic irony because the audience knows that Iago is not honest at all and he’s only pretending to be honest to manipulate Cassio and Othello. Othello speaks toRead MoreEssay on Jealousy in Shakespeares Othello649 Words   |  3 PagesJealousy in Othello The tragedy of Othello is the story of jealousy. It is Othellos public insecurity that makes him jealous of Cassio and allows him to believe that Cassio has slept with Desdemona. Also, it is Iagos jealousy of Othello that drives him to destroy both Othello and Desdemona. What is fascinating about Shakespeares Othello is the way in which jealousy between the major characters is sexualized. Perhaps what makes Othello so disturbing is how quickly this sexualized jealousyRead MoreMisogynistic Themes and Language used by Shakespeare682 Words   |  3 PagesThroughout Othello and Shakespeare’s Sonnets, there are a plethora of misogynistic themes and language. However, it is not fair to assume that these are misogynistic works. The misogyny observed in the texts is conscience on the part of the author and is not meant to be emulated. Shakespeare is making artistic and social statements in every instance of misogyny. The dominant attitude of the men observed in Othello is that women are fickle, disloyal, and flawed in character. Ironically, the only individualsRead MoreSocial Context of Othello667 Words   |  3 Pagesproduction of William Shakespeare’s â€Å"Othello.† The famous playwright was in the midst of his tragedy period, penning such classics as â€Å"Hamlet,† â€Å"King Lear,† and â€Å"Macbeth.† The story of â€Å"Othello† has its roots in the historical events and cultural atmosphere of the late 16th and early 17th centuries. It was a common practice of playwrights at the time to borrow or lift plot ideas from other preexisting stories, and Shakespeare was no exception to the rule. The plot of â€Å"Othello† most closely resembles a 1565Read More Women as Instigators of Tragedy in the Works of William Shakespeare1219 Words   |  5 PagesWomen as Instigators of Tragedy in the Works of Shakespeare    It is the very error of the moon; She comes more nearer earth than she was wont, And makes men mad. (Othello 5.2.112-14)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The moon is often seen in literature as an allegory for love, virtue, and chastity. In Shakespeares comedies, especially, the moon is personified as Diana, the Roman goddess of chastity. In these comedies, the foolish antics of lovers (literally, lunatics) usually occur underRead MoreThe Role of Soliloquys in Othello1128 Words   |  5 PagesThe two male leads in Othello, Iago and Othello, both speak directly to the audience sharing their innermost thoughts through their soliloquies. The protagonist of the play, the tragic Othello, uses soliloquies to show his emotions about what he is told by deceitful Iago regarding his wife’s unfaithfulness. Othello’s soliloquies tend to be emotionally driven and as the play progresses they tend to be become more infected as he descends into rage and jealousy. Iago’s soliloquies however reveal hisRead MoreOthello : Vulnerability Destroys Virtues Of A Great Leader1601 Words   |  7 PagesOthello: Vulnerability Destroys Virtues Of A Great Leader Thesis: Even though Othello considers to be vulnerable is a weakness, his temperance and prudence should never come in conflict with his leadership principles because Iago despises Othello and manipulates him therefore, Othello becomes vulnerable resulting in his death. 1. Othello believes that being vulnerable is a sign of weakness. A. Othello will not expunge himself from his race and ethnicity, for he knows glorifying his heritageRead MoreExploring the Causes of the Tragedy of Shakespeare ´s Othello1014 Words   |  4 Pagesunfavorable circumstances. In the play Othello, William Shakespeare uses the literary device characterization in sequence to convey that Othello’s tragic flaw is the main reason that brings Othello to his downfall --- death. The causes of the tragedy of Othello are Othello’s gullibility to Iago, jealousy of Desdemona’s affair, and male pride. To begin, one factor that causes Othello’s downfall is that he is characterized by gullibility. Firstly, Othello is tricked by Iago, who leads him to believe

Bill Cosby :: essays research papers

Bill Cosby was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 12, 1937. He was the oldest of four boys. He had three brothers, and their names ...